If it's alive and it lives wild, it's wildlife.

Kevin J. Cook                                              Kevin@WildlifeWindow.com

Bird Catalog

Colorado Bird Catalog

Status Categories

Indigenous: occurs in an area through natural process without involvement of people.


Abbreviations: (1) IN = indigenous; mig = migratory; pio = pioneer; res = resident; aut = autumn; bre = breeding; spr = spring; err = erratic; irr = irregular; reg = regular; sea = seasonal; sed = sedentary; sto = stocked; (2) EX = exotic; fer = feral; est = established; une = unestablished


IN: mig - aut – arrives in autumn and spends a portion of the season but not all

IN: mig - bre - irr – migratory and nests but not every year, or has nested historically but does not

IN: mig - bre - reg – migratory but nests somewhere in state every year

IN: mig - err – occurs erratically, unpredictably, so not seen every year

IN: mig - spr – arrives in spring and spends a portion of the season but not all

IN: mig - sto – wild populations supplemented or otherwise manipulated by deliberate human

IN: pio - mig - bre – originating outside the state but expanding range through natural process to
                                              establish a seasonal presence

IN: pio - res - bre – originating outside the state but expanding range through natural process to
                                             establish a year-round presence

IN: res - mig - bre – present in the state year round but the individuals of the state may be migratory so
                                              that different individuals are here in summer than in winter

IN: res - sea – present in the state throughout one or more seasons but absent for at least one

IN: res - sed - bre – present in the state throughout the year by nonmigratory individuals

IN: res - sto – wild populations supplemented by deliberate human intervention


Exotic: “from another land,” meaning a species occurs in an area as a consequence of human
involvement in geographic displacement, typically from another continent.


EX: est - bre – once captive but now breeding in the wild

EX: fer – escaped or released from captivity but with no wild, self-sustaining population and continuing
                            to occur only through ongoing escapes or releases

EX: pio – originating as an exotic species outside the state but then expanding range through natural
                             processes to arrive and establish a self-sustaining population here without direct human

EX: sto - est – raised in captivity then released for the specific purpose of establishing a wild, self-
                                     sustaining population; all known cases in Colorado limited to gamebirds

EX: sto - une – raised in captivity then released for the specific purpose of establishing a wild population
                                      but without the species becoming established as planned

Search by first letter: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

American Name                                     Latin Name                                 Colorado Status




Anhingas                                                  Anhingidae

1      Anhinga                                              Anhinga anhinga                          1 specimen: 1931

1      Anhinga, Rufous-necked                     Anhinga novaehollandiae             1 specimen: 1927


Auks                                                         Alcidae

2      Murrelet, Ancient                                Synthliboramphus antiquus            IN: mig - err

2      Murrelet, Long-billed                          Brachyramphus perdix                    IN: mig - err


Barn-Owls                                                Tytonidae

        Barn-Owl                                           Tyto alba                                       IN: mig - bre - reg


Blackbirds                                                Icteridae

        Blackbird, Brewer’s                            Euphagus cyanocephalus             IN: mig - bre - reg

        Blackbird, Red-winged                       Agelaius phoeniceus                      IN: res - mig

        Blackbird, Rusty                                 Euphagus carolinus                       IN: res - sea

        Blackbird, Yellow-headed                   Xanthcephalus xanthocephalus    IN: mig - bre - reg

        Bobolink                                             Dolichonyx oryzivora                    IN: mig - bre - reg

        Cowbird, Bronzed                              Molothrus aeneus                          1 sighting

        Cowbird, Brown-headed                    Molothrus ater                               IN: mig - bre - reg

        Grackle, Common                               Quiscalus quiscula                         IN: mig - bre - reg

        Grackle, Great-tailed                           Quiscalus mexicanus                     IN: mig - bre - reg

        Meadowlark, Eastern                          Sturnella magna                            IN: mig - bre - reg

        Meadowlark, Western                        Sturnella neglecta                          IN: res - sed - bre

        Oriole, Baltimore                                 Icterus galbula                              IN: mig - bre - reg

        Oriole, Bullock’s                                 Icterus bullockii                            IN: mig - bre - reg

        Oriole, Orchard                                  Icterus spurius                               IN: mig - bre - reg

        Oriole, Scott’s                                    Icterus parisorum                          IN: mig - bre - reg


Buntings (see “Cardinals” and “Sparrows”)


Bushtits                                                    Aegithalidae

        Bushtit                                                Psaltriparus minimus                    IN: res- sed - bre


Cardinals                                                  Cardinalidae

        Bunting, Indigo                                    Passerina cyanea                          IN: mig - bre - reg

        Bunting, Lazuli                                     Passerina amoena                        IN: mig - bre - reg

        Bunting, Painted                                  Passerina ciris                               IN: mig - bre - reg

        Cardinal, Northern                              Cardinalis cardinalis                     IN: res - sed - bre

        Dickcissel                                           Spiza americana                            IN: mig - bre - reg

        Grosbeak, Black-headed                    Pheucticus melanocephalus          IN: mig - bre - reg

        Grosbeak, Blue                                   Guiraca caerulea                          IN: mig - bre - reg

        Grosbeak, Rose-breasted                   Pheucticus ludovicianus                IN: mig - bre - reg

        Pyrrhuloxia                                          Cardinalis sinuatus                       3 sight records


Chickadees                                               Paridae

        Chickadee, Black-capped                   Poecile atricapilla                         IN: res - sed - bre

        Chickadee, Mountain                          Poecile gambeli                             IN: res - sed - bre

        Titmouse, Juniper                                Baeolophus griseus                        IN: res - sed - bre


Condors                                                    Cathartidae

3      Condor, California                              Gymnogyps californianus             1 group of 3 birds

4      Vulture, Black                                     Coragyps atratus                          IN: mig - err

5      Vulture, Turkey                                   Cathartes aura                              IN: mig - bre - reg


Cormorants                                              Phalacrocoracidae

        Cormorant, Double-crested                 Phalacrocorax auritus                  IN: mig - bre - reg

        Cormorant, Neotropic                         Phalacrocorax brasilianus            IN: mig - err


Cranes                                                      Gruidae

        Crane, Sandhill                                    Grus canadensis                            IN: mig - bre - reg

6      Crane, Whooping                                Grus americana                             IN: mig - sto - une


Creepers                                                   Certhiidae

        Creeper, Brown                                  Certhia americana                        IN: res - sed - bre


Crows                                                        Corvidae

        Crow, American                                 Corvus brachyrhynchos                IN: res - sed - bre

        Jay, Blue                                             Cyanocitta cristata                       IN: pio - res - bre

        Jay, Gray                                            Perisoreus canadensis                   IN: res - sed - bre

        Jay, Pinyon                                         Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus        IN: res - sed - bre

        Jay, Steller’s                                       Cyanocitta stelleri                         IN: res - sed - bre

        Magpie, Black-billed                           Pica pica                                       IN: res - sed - bre

        Nutcracker, Clark’s                            Nucifraga columbiana                  IN: res - sed - bre

        Raven, Chihuahuan                              Corvus cryptoleucus                     IN: res - sed - bre

        Raven, Common                                 Corvus corax                                IN: res - sed - bre

        Scrub-Jay, Western                            Aphelocoma californica                IN: res - sed - bre


Cuckoos                                                    Cuculidae

        Ani, Groove-billed                              Crotophaga sulcirostris                 IN: mig - err

        Cuckoo, Black-billed                          Coccyzus erythrophthalmus          IN: mig - bre - reg

        Cuckoo, Yellow-billed                        Coccyzus americanus                    IN: mig - bre - reg

        Roadrunner, Greater                           Geococcyx californianus               IN: res - sed - bre


Dippers                                                     Cinclidae

7      Dipper, American                                Cinclus mexicanus                        IN: res - sed - bre


Doves (see “Pigeons”)


Ducks                                                       Anatidae: Anatinae

        Bufflehead                                           Bucephala albeola                        IN: res - mig - bre

        Canvasback                                        Aythya valisineria                         IN: res - mig - bre

        Duck, American Black                        Anas rubripes                                IN: mig - err

8      Duck, Harlequin                                  Histrionicus histrionicus               IN: res - sea    

        Duck, Long-tailed                               Clangula hyemalis                        IN: res - sea

9      Duck, Mottled                                    Anas fulvigula                               2 specimens

        Duck, Muscovy                                  Cairina moschata                         EX: fer

        Duck, Ring-necked                             Aythya collaris                              IN: res - mig - bre

        Duck, Ruddy                                      Oxyura jamaicensis                       IN: res - sed - bre

10    Duck, Tufted                                       Aythya fuligula                             1 sighting

11    Duck, Wood                                       Aix sponsa                                    IN: res - sed - bre

12    Eider, Common                                   Somateria mollissima                   1 spec.; 1 sighting

        Gadwall                                              Anas strepera                                IN: res - mig - bre

13    Garganey                                            Anas querquedula                         1 sighting

        Goldeneye, Barrow’s                          Bucephala islandica                      IN: res - mig - bre

        Goldeneye, Common                          Bucephala clangula                       IN: res - sea

        Mallard                                               Anas platyrhynchos                      IN: res - sed - bre

        Merganser, Common                          Mergus merganser                        IN: res - sed - bre

        Merganser, Hooded                            Lophodytes cucullatus                  IN: res - sea

        Merganser, Red-breasted                    Mergus serrator                            IN: res - sea

        Pintail, Northern                                  Anas acuta                                    IN: res - mig - bre

        Redhead                                             Aythya americana                         IN: res - sed - bre

        Scaup, Greater                                    Aythya marila                               IN: res - sea

        Scaup, Lesser                                     Aythya affinis                                IN: res - sea

        Scoter, Black                                      Melanitta nigra                             IN: res - sea

        Scoter, Surf                                        Melanitta perspicillata                  IN: res - sea

        Scoter, White-winged                         Melanitta fusca                             IN: res - sea

        Shoveler, Northern                              Anas clypeata                               IN: res - mig - bre

14    Teal, Baikal                                         Anas formosa                               1 sighting

        Teal, Blue-winged                               Anas discors                                  IN: mig - bre - reg

        Teal, Cinnamon                                   Anas cyanoptera                           IN: mig - bre - reg

        Teal, Green-winged                             Anas crecca                                  IN: res - mig - bre

15    Whistling-Duck, Black-bellied             Dendrocygna autumnalis              see notes

16    Whistling-Duck, Fulvous                     Dendrocygna bicolor                     see notes

        Wigeon, American                              Anas americana                             IN: res - mig - bre

        Wigeon, Eurasian                                Anas penelope                               IN: mig - err


Falcons                                                     Falconidae

17    Caracara, Crested                               Caracara plancus                         2 records, 1 specimen

        Falcon, Peregrine                                Falco peregrinus                           IN: mig - bre - reg

        Falcon, Prairie                                     Falco mexicanus                          IN: res - sed - bre

        Gyrfalcon                                            Falco rusticolus                            IN: mig - err

        Kestrel, American                               Falco sparverius                           IN: res - sed - bre

        Merlin                                                 Falco columbarius                        IN: res - sea


Finches                                                     Fringillidae

        Brambling                                           Fringilla montifringilla                 2 sightings

        Crossbill, Red                                     Loxia curvirostra                          IN: res - sed - bre

        Crossbill, White-winged                      Loxia leucoptera                           IN: mig - err

        Goldfinch, American                            Carduelis tristis                             IN: res - mig - bre

        Goldfinch, Lesser                                Carduelis psaltria                         IN: mig - bre - reg

        Grosbeak, Evening                              Coccothraustes vespertinus          IN:

        Grosbeak, Pine                                   Pinicola enucleator                       IN: res - sed - bre

        Finch, Cassin’s                                    Carpodacus cassinii                      IN: res - sed - bre

        Finch, House                                       Carpodacus mexicanus                 IN: res - sed - bre

        Finch, Purple                                       Carpodacus purpureus                 IN: mig - err

        Redpoll, Common                               Carduelis flammea                        IN: res - sea

        Rosy-Finch, Black                              Leucosticte atrata                         IN: res - sea

        Rosy-Finch, Brown-capped                Leucosticte australis                     IN: res - sed - bre

        Rosy-Finch, Gray-crowned                 Leucosticte tephrocotis                 IN: res - sea

        Siskin, Pine                                         Carduelis pinus                             IN: res - sed - bre


Flycatchers                                               Tyrannidae

        Flycatcher, Alder                                Empidonax alnorum                     IN: mig - err

        Flycatcher, Ash-throated                     Myiarchus cinerascens                  IN: mig - bre - reg

        Flycatcher, Buff-breasted                    Empidonax fulvifrons                   1 sighting

        Flycatcher, Cordilleran                        Empidonax occidentalis                IN: mig - bre - reg

        Flycatcher, Dusky                               Empidonax oberholseri                 IN: mig - bre - reg

18    Flycatcher, Dusky-capped                  Myiarchus tuberculifer                  1 specimen: 1883

        Flycatcher, Gray                                 Empidonax wrightii                      IN: mig - bre - reg

        Flycatcher, Great Crested                   Myiarchus crinitus                        IN: mig - bre - reg

        Flycatcher, Hammond’s                      Empidonax hammondii                 IN: mig - bre - reg

        Flycatcher, Least                                 Empidonax minimus                     IN: mig - aut, spr

        Flycatcher, Olive-sided                       Contopus cooperi                          IN: mig - bre - reg

        Flycatcher, Scissor-tailed                    Tyrannus forficatus                       IN: mig - bre - irr

        Flycatcher, Sulphur-bellied                  Myiodynastes luteiventris             1 sighting

        Flycatcher, Vermilion                          Pyrocephalus rubinus                   IN: mig - bre - irr

        Flycatcher, Willow                              Empidonax traillii                         IN: mig - bre - reg

        Kingbird, Cassin’s                               Tyrannus vociferans                     IN: mig - bre - reg

        Kingbird, Eastern                                Tyrannus tyrannus                        IN: mig - bre - reg

        Kingbird, Thick-billed                         Tyrannus crassirostris                   1 sighting

        Kingbird, Western                               Tyrannus verticalis                       IN: mig - bre - reg

        Phoebe, Black                                    Sayornis nigricans                         IN: mig - bre - irr

        Phoebe, Eastern                                  Sayornis phoebe                            IN: mig - bre - reg

        Phoebe, Say’s                                     Sayornis saya                                IN: mig - bre - reg

        Wood-Pewee, Eastern                        Contopus virens                            IN: mig - err

        Wood-Pewee, Western                      Contopus sordidulus                     IN: mig - bre - reg


Frigatebirds                                              Fregatidae

        Frigatebird, Magnificent                       Fregata magnificens                     1 specimen


Geese                                                       Anatidae: Anserinae

        Brant                                                  Branta bernicla                             IN: mig - err

19    Goose, Bar-headed                             Anser indicus                                 EX: fer

20    Goose, Cackling                                 Branta hutchinsii                           IN: res - sea

        Goose, Canada                                   Branta canadensis                         IN: res - sed - bre

21    Goose, Chinese                                   Anser cygnoides                            EX: fer

        Goose, Greater White-fronted             Anser albifrons                              IN: res - sea

        Goose, Ross’s                                    Chen rossii                                    IN: res - sea

        Goose, Snow                                      Chen caerulescens                        IN: res - sea


Gnatcatchers                                            Sylviidae

        Gnatcatcher, Blue-gray                        Polioptila caerulea                        IN: mig - bre - reg


Grebes                                                      Podicipedidae

        Grebe, Clark’s                                    Aechmophorus clarkii                   IN: mig - bre - reg

        Grebe, Eared                                      Podiceps nigricollis                       IN: mig - bre - reg

        Grebe, Horned                                    Podiceps auritus                           IN: res - sea

        Grebe, Pied-billed                               Podilymbus podiceps                    IN: res - sed - bre

        Grebe, Red-necked                            Podiceps grisegena                       IN: mig - err

        Grebe, Western                                  Aechmophorus occidentalis          IN: res - sed - bre


Grouses                                                    Phasianidae: Tetraoninae

22    Grouse, Dusky                                    Dendragapus obscurus                 IN: res - sed - bre

23    Grouse, Ruffed                                    Bonasa umbellus                           IN: res - sed - bre

        Grouse, Sharp-tailed                           Tympanuchus phasianellus           IN: res - sto

        Prairie-Chicken, Greater                     Tympanuchus cupido                    IN: res - sto

        Prairie-Chicken, Lesser                       Tympanuchus pallidicinctus          IN: res - sed - bre

        Ptarmigan, White-tailed                       Lagopus leucurus                          IN: res - sed - bre

        Sage-Grouse, Greater                         Centrocercus urophasianus          IN: res - sed - bre

        Sage-Grouse, Gunnison                       Centrocercus minimus                  IN: res - sed - bre


Gulls                                                         Laridae: Larinae

        Gull, Black-headed                             Larus ridibundus                           IN:

        Gull, Bonaparte’s                                Larus philadelphia                        IN: res - sea

        Gull, California                                    Larus californicus                         IN: mig - bre - reg

        Gull, Franklin’s                                    Larus pipixcan                              IN: res - sea

        Gull, Glaucous                                     Larus hyperboreus                        IN: res - sea

        Gull, Glaucous-winged                        Larus glaucescens                         IN: mig - err

        Gull, Great Black-backed                    Larus marinus                               IN: mig - err

        Gull, Herring                                       Larus argentatus                           IN: res - sea

        Gull, Iceland                                        Larus glaucoides                           IN: mig - err

24    Gull, Ivory                                           Pagophila eburnea                        1 specimen: 1926

        Gull, Laughing                                     Larus atricilla                               IN: mig - err

        Gull, Lesser Black-backed                  Larus fuscus                                  IN: mig - err

        Gull, Little                                           Larus minutus                               IN: mig - err

        Gull, Mew                                           Larus canus                                   IN: mig - err

        Gull, Ring-billed                                  Larus delawarensis                       IN:

        Gull, Ross’s                                        Rhodostethia rosea                       1 sighting: 1983

        Gull, Sabine’s                                      Xema sabini                                  IN: mig

        Gull, Slaty-backed                              Larus schistisagus                         IN:

        Gull, Thayer’s                                     Larus thayeri                                 IN: res - sea

25    Gull, Western                                      Larus occidentalis                         1 specimen

        Kittiwake, Black-legged                      Rissa tridactyla                             IN: mig - err


Hawks                                                       Accipitridae

        Black-Hawk, Common                       Buteogallus anthracinus               IN: mig - err

        Eagle, Bald                                         Haliaeetus leucocephalus              IN: res - mig - bre

        Eagle, Golden                                     Aquila chrysaetos                          IN: res - sed - bre

        Harrier, Northern                                Circus cyaneus                              IN: res - mig - bre

        Hawk, Broad-winged                          Buteo platypterus                          IN: mig - spr

        Hawk, Cooper’s                                 Accipiter cooperii                          IN: res - sed - bre

        Hawk, Harris’s                                   Parabuteo unicinctus                    IN: res - sed - bre

        Hawk, Ferruginous                              Buteo regalis                                 IN: res - sed - bre

26    Hawk, Red-backed                            Buteo polyosoma                           1 record

        Hawk, Red-shouldered                       Buteo lineatus                               IN: mig - err

        Hawk, Red-tailed                                Buteo jamaicensis                         IN: res - sed - bre

        Hawk, Rough-legged                          Buteo lagopus                               IN: res - sea

        Hawk, Swainson’s                              Buteo swainsoni                            IN: mig - bre - reg

        Hawk, Sharp-shinned                          Accipiter striatus                           IN: res - sed - bre

        Hawk, Zone-tailed                              Buteo albonotatus                         2 sightings

        Goshawk, Northern                            Accipiter gentilis                           IN: res - sed - bre

        Kite, Mississippi                                  Ictinia mississippiensis                  IN: mig - bre - reg

27    Kite, Swallow-tailed                            Elanoides forficatus                      IN: mig - err

        Osprey                                               Pandion haliaetus                         IN: mig - bre - reg


Herons                                                      Ardeidae

        Bittern, American                                Botaurus lentiginosus                    IN: mig - bre - reg

        Bittern, Least                                      Ixobrychus exilis                           IN: mig - bre - irr

        Egret, Cattle                                        Bubulcus ibis                                 IN: pio - mig - bre

        Egret, Great                                        Ardea alba                                    IN: mig - bre - reg

        Egret, Reddish                                    Egretta rufescens                          IN: mig - err

        Egret, Snowy                                      Egretta thula                                 IN: mig - bre - reg

        Heron, Great Blue                               Ardea herodias                              IN: res - mig - bre

        Heron, Green                                      Butorides virescens                       IN: mig - bre - irr

        Heron, Little Blue                                Egretta caerulea                           IN: mig - bre - irr

        Heron, Tricolored                               Egretta tricolor                             IN: mig - err

        Night-Heron, Black-crowned              Nycticorax nycticorax                  IN: mig - bre - reg

        Night-Heron, Yellow-crowned            Nyctanassa violacea                     IN: mig - err


Hummingbirds                                          Trochilidae

        Hummingbird, Anna’s                          Calypte anna                                 IN: mig - err

        Hummingbird, Black-chinned               Archilochus alexandri                   IN: mig - bre - reg

28    Hummingbird, Blue-throated                Lampornis clemenciae                  IN: mig - err

29    Hummingbird, Broad-billed                 Cynanthus latirostris                    1 banded

        Hummingbird, Broad-tailed                 Selasphorus platycercus                IN: mig - bre - reg

        Hummingbird, Calliope                        Stellula calliope                             IN: mig - sum

30    Hummingbird, Costa’s                         Calypte costae                              1 sight.; 1 banded

        Hummingbird, Magnificent                   Eugenes fulgens                            IN: mig - err

31    Hummingbird, Ruby-throated              Archilochus colubris                     IN: mig - err

        Hummingbird, Rufous                          Selasphorus rufus                          IN: mig - sum

32    Hummingbird, White-eared                 Hylocharis leucotis                        1 banded

33    Violet-ear, Green                                Colibri thalassinus                        1 sighting

Ibises                                                        Threskiornthidae

31    Ibis, Glossy                                         Plegadis falcinellus                       IN: mig - err

        Ibis, White                                          Eudocimus albus                           IN: mig - err

        Ibis, White-faced                                Plegadis chihi                                IN: mig - bre - reg

32    Spoonbill, Roseate                              Ajaia ajaja                                    4 reports, 1 spec.


Jaegers                                                     Stercorariidae

        Jaeger, Long-tailed                              Stercorarius longicaudus              IN: mig - err

        Jaeger, Parasitic                                  Stercorarius parasiticus                IN: mig - err

        Jaeger, Pomarine                                 Stercorarius pomarinus                IN: mig - err


Jays (see “Crows”)


Kingbirds (see “Flycatchers”)


Kingfishers                                               Alcedinidae

        Kingfisher, Belted                                Megaceryle alcyon                        IN: res - sed - bre


Kinglets                                                    Regulidae

        Kinglet, Golden-crowned                    Regulus satrapa                            IN: res - sed - bre

        Kinglet, Ruby-crowned                       Regulus calendula                         IN: mig - bre - reg


Larks                                                        Alaudidae

        Lark, Horned                                      Eremophila alpestris                     IN: res - sed - bre


Loons                                                        Gaviidae

33    Loon, Arctic                                       Gavia arctica                                1 sighting

        Loon, Common                                   Gavia immer                                 IN: res - sea

        Loon, Pacific                                       Gavia pacifica                              IN: res - sea

        Loon, Red-throated                            Gavia stellata                               IN: mig - err

        Loon, Yellow-billed                            Gavia adamsii                               IN: mig - err


Nightjars                                                   Caprimulgidae

        Nighthawk, Common                          Chordeiles minor                          IN: mig - bre - reg

34    Nighthawk, Lesser                              Chordeiles acutipennis                  IN: mig - err

        Poorwill, Common                              Phalaenoptilus nuttallii                 IN: mig - bre - reg

        Whip-poor-will                                   Caprimulgus vociferus                  IN: mig - err


Nuthatches                                               Sittidae

        Nuthatch, Pygmy                                 Sitta pygmaea                               IN: res - sed - bre

        Nuthatch, Red-breasted                      Sitta canadensis                            IN: res - sed - bre

        Nuthatch, White-breasted                   Sitta carolinensis                           IN: res - sed - bre


Old World Sparrows                                Passeridae

35    Sparrow, House                                  Passer domesticus                         EX: pio - sed - bre


Owls                                                          Strigidae

36    Owl, Barred                                        Strix varia                                     IN: mig - bre - irr

        Owl, Boreal                                        Aegolius funereus                          IN: res - sed - bre

        Owl, Burrowing                                  Athene cunicularia                        IN: mig - bre - reg

        Owl, Flammulated                               Otus flammeolus                           IN: mig - bre - reg

        Owl, Great Horned                             Bubo virginianus                           IN: res - sed - bre

        Owl, Long-eared                                Asio otus                                       IN: res - sed - bre

        Owl, Short-eared                                Asio flammeus                               IN: res - mig - bre

        Owl, Snowy                                        Bubo scandiaca                             IN: mig - err

        Owl, Spotted                                      Strix occidentalis                          IN: res - sed - bre

        Pygmy-Owl, Northern                         Glaucidium gnoma                       IN: res - sed - bre

        Saw-whet Owl, Northern                    Aegolius acadicus                         IN: res - sed - bre

        Screech-Owl, Eastern                         Megascops asio                             IN: res - sed - bre

        Screech-Owl, Western                        Megascops kennicottii                  IN: res - sed - bre


Parrots                                                      Psittacidae

37    Budgerigar                                          Melopsittacus undulatus               EX: fer

38    Parakeet, Carolina                              Conuropsis carolinensis                Extinct

39    Parakeet, Monk                                  Myiopsitta monachus                    EX: est - bre


Pelicans                                                    Pelecanidae

        Pelican, American White                     Pelecanus erythrorhynchos           IN: mig - bre - reg

        Pelican, Brown                                    Pelecanus occidentalis                  IN: mig - err


Phainopeplas (see “Silky-Flycatchers”)


Phalaropes                                                Scolopacidae: Phalaropodinae

        Phalarope, Red                                   Phalaropus fulicaria                     IN: mig - aut

        Phalarope, Red-necked                       Phalaropus lobatus                       IN: mig - spr

        Phalarope, Wilson’s                            Phalaropus tricolor                       IN: mig - bre - reg


Pheasants                                                 Phasianidae

40    Chukar                                               Alectoris chukar                            EX: sto - est

41    Guineafowl, Helmeted                         Numida meleagris                         EX: fer

42    Junglefowl, Red                                   Gallus gallus                                 EX: fer

43    Partridge, Gray                                   Perdix perdix                                EX: sto - une

44    Peafowl, Common                              Pavo cristatus                               EX: est - bre

45    Pheasant, Ring-necked                        Phasianus colchicus                      EX: sto - est


Pigeons                                                     Columbidae

46    Collared-Dove, Eurasian                     Streptopelia decaocto                   EX: pio

47    Dove, Inca                                          Columbina inca                             IN: mig - err

        Dove, Mourning                                  Zenaida macroura                        IN: mig - bre - reg

        Dove, White-winged                           Zenaida asiatica                            IN: mig - err

48    Ground-Dove, Common                     Columbina passerina                    IN: mig - err

        Pigeon, Band-tailed                             Patagioenas fasciata                    IN: mig - bre - reg

49    Pigeon, Rock                                      Columba livia                               EX: pio


Pipits                                                         Motacillidae

        Pipit, American                                   Anthus rubescens                          IN: mig - bre - reg

50    Pipit, Sprague’s                                   Anthus spragueii                           IN: mig - aut


Plovers                                                      Charadriidae

51    Golden-Plover, American                    Pluvialis dominica                        IN: mig - err

        Killdeer                                               Charadrius vociferus                    IN: mig - bre - reg

        Plover, Black-bellied                           Pluvialis squatarola                      IN: mig - spr

        Plover, Mountain                                 Charadrius montanus                   IN: mig - bre - reg

        Plover, Piping                                      Charadrius melodus                      IN: mig - bre - reg

        Plover, Semipalmated                          Charadrius semipalmatus             IN: mig - spr

        Plover, Snowy                                    Charadrius alexandrinus              IN: mig - bre - reg


Quails                                                       Odontophoridae

        Bobwhite, Northern                            Colinus virginianus                       IN: res - sed - bre

52    Quail, California Quail                         Callipepla californica                   EX: sto - une

53    Quail, Gambel’s                                  Callipepla gambelii                       EX: sto - est

54    Quail, Mountain                                  Oreortyx pictus                             EX: sto - une

55    Quail, Scaled                                      Callipepla squamata                     IN: res - sed - bre


Rails                                                         Rallidae

        Coot, American                                  Fulica americana                          IN: res - sed - bre

        Gallinule, Purple                                  Porphyrula martinica                   2 sightings

        Moorhen, Common                             Gallinula chloropus                      IN: mig - irr

        Rail, Black                                          Laterallus jamaicensis                  IN: mig - bre - irr

        Rail, King                                            Rallus elegans                               2 sightings

        Rail, Virginia                                       Rallus limicola                               IN: mig - bre - reg

56    Rail, Yellow                                        Coturnicops noveboracensis         1 specimen: 1906

        Sora                                                   Porzana carolina                          IN: mig - bre - reg


Sandpipers                                                Scolopacidae

57    Curlew, Eskimo                                  Numenius borealis                        2 specimens: 1882

        Curlew, Long-billed                            Numenius americanus                   IN: mig - bre - reg

        Dowitcher, Long-billed                        Limnodromus scolopaceus            IN: mig -

        Dowitcher, Short-billed                       Limnodromus griseus                    IN: mig - err

        Dunlin                                                 Calidris alpina                              IN: mig - spr

        Godwit, Hudsonian                             Limosa haemastica                       IN: mig - spr

        Godwit, Marbled                                Limosa fedoa                                IN: mig - bre - reg

        Knot, Red                                           Calidris canutus                            IN: mig - spr

        Ruff                                                    Philomachus pugnax                    1 sighting

        Sanderling                                           Calidris alba                                 IN: mig - spr

        Sandpiper, Baird’s                              Calidris bairdii                              IN: res - sea

        Sandpiper, Buff-breasted                    Tryngites subruficollis                   IN: mig - aut

58    Sandpiper, Curlew                              Calidris ferruginea                        1 sighting

        Sandpiper, Least                                 Calidris minutilla                          IN: mig -

        Sandpiper, Pectoral                             Calidris melanotos                        IN: mig -

        Sandpiper, Semipalmated                    Calidris pusilla                              IN: mig -

59    Sandpiper, Sharp-tailed                       Calidris acuminata                      

        Sandpiper, Solitary                              Tringa solitaria                             IN: mig - spr

        Sandpiper, Spotted                             Actitis macularia                           IN: mig - bre - reg

        Sandpiper, Stilt                                   Calidris himantopus                      IN: mig - spr

        Sandpiper, Upland                              Bartramia longicauda                   IN: mig - bre - reg

        Sandpiper, Western                            Calidris mauri                               IN: res - sea

        Sandpiper, White-rumped                   Calidris fuscicollis                         IN: mig - spr

        Snipe, Wilson’s                                   Gallinago delicata                        IN: mig - bre - reg

        Turnstone, Ruddy                                Arenaria interpres                         IN: mig - spr

        Whimbrel                                            Numenius phaeopus                      IN: mig - spr

        Willet                                                  Tringa semipalmata                      IN: mig - bre - reg

        Woodcock, American                         Scolopax minor                             IN: mig - bre - irr

        Yellowlegs, Greater                             Tringa melanoleuca                      IN: mig - bre - reg

        Yellowlegs, Lesser                              Tringa flavipes                              IN: res - sea


Shrikes                                                     Laniidae

        Shrike, Loggerhead                             Lanius ludovicianus                      IN: mig - bre - reg

        Shrike, Northern                                 Lanius excubitor                           IN: res - sea


Silky-Flycatchers                                     Ptilogonatidae

        Phainopepla                                        Phainopepla nitens                       IN: mig - err


Skimmers                                                 Laridae: Rynchopinae

60    Skimmer, Black                                  Rynchops niger                              2 sightings


Sparrows                                                   Emberizidae

        Bunting, Lark                                      Calamospiza melanocorys            IN: mig - bre - reg

        Bunting, Snow                                     Plectrophenax nivalis                   IN: mig - err

        Junco, Dark-eyed                               Junco hyemalis                              IN: res - mig - bre

        Longspur, Chestnut-collared                Calcarius ornatus                         IN: mig - bre - reg

        Longspur, Lapland                              Calcarius lapponicus                    IN: res - sea

        Longspur, McCown’s                         Calcarius mccownii                      IN: mig - bre - reg

        Longspur, Smith’s                               Calcarius pictus                            IN: mig - aut

        Sparrow, American Tree                     Spizella arborea                            IN: res - sea

        Sparrow, Baird’s                                Ammodramus bairdii                    IN: mig - err

        Sparrow, Black-throated                     Amphispiza bilineata                     IN: mig - bre - reg

        Sparrow, Brewer’s                             Spizella breweri                             IN: mig - bre - reg

        Sparrow, Cassin’s                               Aimophila cassinii                         IN: mig - bre - reg

        Sparrow, Chipping                              Spizella passerina                          IN: mig - bre - reg

        Sparrow, Clay-colored                       Spizella pallida                              IN: mig - spr

        Sparrow, Field                                    Spizella pusilla                              IN: mig - bre - reg

        Sparrow, Fox                                     Passerella iliaca                            IN: mig - bre - reg

        Sparrow, Golden-crowned                  Zonotrichia atricapilla                  IN: mig - err

        Sparrow, Grasshopper                        Ammodramus savannarum           IN: mig - bre - reg

        Sparrow, Harris’s                               Zonotrichia querula                      IN: res - sea

        Sparrow, Henslow’s                           Ammodramus henslowii                2 sightings

        Sparrow, Lark                                    Chondestes grammacus                IN: mig - bre - reg

        Sparrow, Le Conte’s                          Ammodramus leconteii                 IN: mig - err

        Sparrow, Lincoln’s                              Melospiza lincolnii                        IN: mig - bre - reg

        Sparrow, Nelson’s Sharp-tailed          Ammodramus nelsoni                   IN: mig - err

        Sparrow, Rufous-crowned                  Aimophila ruficeps                        IN: res - sed - bre

        Sparrow, Sage                                    Amphispiza belli                            IN: mig - bre - reg

        Sparrow, Savannah                             Passerculus sandwichensis           IN: mig - bre - reg

        Sparrow, Song                                    Melospiza melodia                        IN: res - sed - bre

        Sparrow, Swamp                                Melospiza georgiana                     IN: res - sea

        Sparrow, Vesper                                Poocetes gramineus                      IN: mig - bre - reg

        Sparrow, White-crowned                    Zonotrichia leucophrys                 IN: res - sed - bre

        Sparrow, White-throated                    Zonotrichia albicollis                    IN: res - sea

        Towhee, Canyon                                 Pipilo fuscus                                  IN: res - sed - bre

        Towhee, Eastern                                 Pipilo erythrophthalmus               IN: res - sea

        Towhee, Green-tailed                          Pipilo chlorurus                            IN: mig - bre - reg

        Towhee, Spotted                                Pipilo maculatus                           IN: res - sed - bre


Spoonbills ( see “Ibises”)


Starlings                                                   Sturnidae

        Starling, European                               Sturnus vulgaris                            EX: pio - res - bre


Stilts                                                          Recurvirostridae

        Avocet, American                               Recurvirostra americana              IN: mig - bre - reg

        Stilt, Black-necked                              Himantopus mexicanus                 IN: mig - bre - irr


Storks                                                       Ciconiidae

61    Stork, Wood                                      Mycteria americana                      Last seen 1934


Swallows                                                   Hirundinidae

        Martin, Purple                                     Progne subis                                 IN: mig - bre - reg

        Swallow, Bank                                    Riparia riparia                              IN: mig - bre - reg

        Swallow, Barn                                    Hirundo rustica                             IN: mig - bre - reg

        Swallow, Cliff                                     Petrochelidon pyrrhonota             IN: mig - bre - reg

        Swallow, Northern Rough-winged       Stelgidopteryx serripennis            IN: mig - bre - reg

        Swallow, Tree                                     Tachycineta bicolor                      IN: mig - bre - reg

        Swallow, Violet-green                         Tachycineta thalassina                 IN: mig - bre - reg


Swans                                                        Anatidae: Anserinae

62    Swan, Mute                                        Cygnus olor                                   EX: feral

        Swan, Trumpeter                                Cygnus buccinator                        IN: res - sea

        Swan, Tundra                                     Cygnus columbianus                     IN: res - sea


Swifts                                                        Apodidae

        Swift, Black                                        Cypseloides niger                          IN: mig - bre - reg

62    Swift, Chimney                                    Chaetura pelagica                        IN: pio - bre - reg

        Swift, White-throated                          Aeronautes saxatalis                     IN: mig - bre - reg


Tanagers                                                  Thraupidae

        Tanager, Hepatic                                 Piranga flava                                IN: mig - spr

        Tanager, Scarlet                                  Piranga olivacea                           IN: mig - spr

        Tanager, Summer                                Piranga rubra                               IN: mig - spr

        Tanager, Western                                Piranga ludoviciana                     IN: mig - bre - reg


Terns                                                        Laridae: Sterninae

        Tern, Arctic                                        Sterna paradisaea                         IN: mig - err

        Tern, Black                                         Chlidonias niger                            IN:

        Tern, Caspian                                     Hydroprogne caspia                      IN: mig -

        Tern, Common                                    Sterna hirundo                              IN: mig -

        Tern, Forster’s                                    Sterna forsteri                               IN: mig - bre - reg

        Tern, Least                                         Sternula antillarum                       IN: mig - bre - reg

63    Tern, Royal                                         Thalasseus maximus                     1 sighting


Thrashers                                                 Mimidae

        Catbird, Gray                                      Dumetella carolinensis                  IN: mig - bre - reg

        Mockingbird, Northern                       Mimus polyglottos                         IN: res

64    Thrasher, Bendire’s                             Toxostoma bendirei                      IN: mig - bre - err

        Thrasher, Brown                                 Toxostoma rufum                         IN: res - sed - bre

        Thrasher, Curve-billed                         Toxostoma curvirostre                 IN: res - sed - bre

65    Thrasher, Long-billed                          Toxostoma longirostre                 

        Thrasher, Sage                                    Oreoscoptes montanus                  IN: mig - bre - reg


Thrushes                                                   Turdidae

        Bluebird, Eastern                                 Sialia sialis                                    IN: pio - bre - reg

        Bluebird, Mountain                              Sialia currucoides                         IN: mig - bre - reg

        Bluebird, Western                               Sialia mexicana                             IN: mig - bre - reg

        Robin, American                                 Turdus migratorius                       IN: res - sed - bre

        Solitaire, Townsend’s                          Myadestes townsendi                    IN: res - sed - bre

        Thrush, Gray-cheeked                         Catharus minimus                         IN: mig - err

        Thrush, Hermit                                    Catharus guttatus                         IN: mig - bre - reg

        Thrush, Swainson’s                             Catharus ustulatus                        IN: mig - bre - reg

        Thrush, Varied                                    Ixoreus naevius                             IN: res - sea

        Thrush, Wood                                     Hylocichla mustelina                     IN: mig - err

        Veery                                                 Catharus fuscescens                     IN: mig - bre - reg


Tinamous                                                  Tinamiidae

66    Nothura, Darwin’s                              Nothura darwinii                          EX: sto - une


Turkeys                                                    Phasianidae: Meleagridinae

67    Turkey, Wild                                       Meleagris gallopavo                     IN: res - sed - bre; sto-fer


Vireos                                                       Vireonidae

        Vireo, Bell’s                                        Vireo bellii                                     IN: mig - bre - reg

        Vireo, Blue-headed                             Vireo solitarius                              IN: mig - spr

        Vireo, Cassin’s                                   Vireo cassinii                                 IN: mig - spr

        Vireo, Gray                                         Vireo vicinior                                IN: mig - bre - reg

        Vireo, Philadelphia                              Vireo philadelphicus                     IN: mig - aut

        Vireo, Plumbeous                                Vireo plumbeus                             IN: mig - bre - reg

        Vireo, Red-eyed                                 Vireo olivaceus                             IN: mig - bre - reg

        Vireo, Warbling                                  Vireo gilvus                                   IN: mig - bre - reg

        Vireo, White-eyed                              Vireo griseus                                  IN: mig - spr

        Vireo, Yellow-throated                       Vireo flavifrons                               IN: mig - spr


Warblers                                                   Parulidae

        Chat, Yellow-breasted                        Icteria virens                                 IN: mig - bre - reg

        Ovenbird                                            Seiurus aurocapillus                      IN: mig - bre - reg

        Parula, Northern                                 Parula americana                         IN: mig -

68    Parula, Tropical                                   Parula pitiayumi                           1 sighting

        Redstart, Painted                                 Myioborus pictus                          

        Redstart, American                             Setophaga ruticilla                        IN: mig -

        Warbler, Bay-breasted                        Dendroica castanea                      IN: mig -

        Warbler, Black-and-white                   Mniotilta varia                              IN: mig -

        Warbler, Blackburnian                        Dendroica fusca                            IN: mig -

        Warbler, Blackpoll                              Dendroica striata                          IN: mig -

        Warbler, Black-throated Blue              Dendroica caerulescens                IN: mig -

        Warbler, Black-throated Gray             Dendroica nigrescens                    IN: mig - bre - reg

        Warbler, Black-throated Green           Dendroica virens                           IN: mig -

        Warbler, Blue-winged                         Vermivora pinus                           IN: mig -

        Warbler, Canada                                Wilsonia canadensis                      IN: mig -

        Warbler, Cape May                            Dendroica tigrina                          IN: mig -

        Warbler, Cerulean                               Dendroica cerulea                         IN: mig -

        Warbler, Chestnut-sided                     Dendroica pensylvanica                IN: mig - bre - irr

        Warbler, Connecticut                          Oporornis agilis                            IN: mig -

        Warbler, Golden-winged                     Vermivora chrysoptera                 IN: mig -

        Warbler, Grace’s                                Dendroica graciae                        IN: mig - bre - reg

        Warbler, Hermit                                  Dendroica occidentalis                 IN: mig -

        Warbler, Hooded                                Wilsonia citrina                             IN: mig -

        Warbler, Kentucky                             Oporornis formosa                        IN: mig - err

        Warbler, Lucy’s                                  Vermivora luciae                          IN: mig - bre - irr

        Warbler, MacGillivray’s                      Oporornis tolmiei                          IN: mig - bre - reg

        Warbler, Magnolia                              Dendroica magnolia                     IN: mig -

        Warbler, Mourning                              Oporornis philadelphia                 IN: mig -

        Warbler, Nashville                              Vermivora ruficapilla                   IN: mig -

        Warbler, Orange-crowned                  Vermivora celata                          IN: mig - bre - reg

        Warbler, Palm                                     Dendroica palmarum                    IN: mig -

        Warbler, Pine                                      Dendroica pinus                            IN: mig -

        Warbler, Prairie                                  Dendroica discolor                        IN: mig -

        Warbler, Prothonotary                        Protonotaria citrea                       IN: mig - err

69    Warbler, Red-faced                            Cardellina rubifrons                     1 sighting

        Warbler, Swainson’s                           Limnothlypis swainsonii                IN: mig -

        Warbler, Tennessee                            Vermivora peregrina                    IN: mig -

        Warbler, Townsend’s                          Dendroica townsendi                    IN: mig -

        Warbler, Virginia’s                              Vermivora virginiae                      IN: mig - bre - reg

        Warbler, Wilson’s                               Wilsonia pusilla                             IN: mig - bre - reg

        Warbler, Worm-eating                        Helmitheros vermivorus               IN: mig - err

        Warbler, Yellow                                 Dendroica petechia                       IN: mig - bre - reg

        Warbler, Yellow-rumped                    Dendroica coronata                      IN: mig - bre - reg

        Warbler, Yellow-throated                   Dendroica dominica                      IN: mig - err

        Waterthrush, Louisiana                        Seiurus motacilla                          IN: mig - err

70    Waterthrush, Northern                        Seiurus noveboracensis                 IN: mig - bre

        Yellowthroat, Common                       Geothlypis trichas                         IN: mig - bre - reg


Waxwings                                                 Bombycillidae

        Waxwing, Bohemian                           Bombycilla garrulus                      IN: mig - err

        Waxwing, Cedar                                 Bombycilla cedrorum                    IN: res - sed - bre


Woodpeckers                                           Picidae

        Flicker, Northern                                Colpates auratus                           IN: res - sed - bre

        Sapsucker, Red-naped                        Sphyrapicus nuchalis                    IN: mig - bre - reg

        Sapsucker, Williamson’s                     Sphyrapicus thyroideus                 IN: mig - bre - reg

        Sapsucker, Yellow-bellied                   Sphyrapicus varius                        IN: res - sea

        Woodpecker, Acorn                           Melanerpes formicivorus              IN: res - sed - bre

        Woodpecker, American Three-toed    Picoides dorsalis                           IN: res - sed - bre

        Woodpecker, Downy                         Picoides pubescens                       IN: res - sed - bre

        Woodpecker, Hairy                            Picoides villosus                            IN: res - sed - bre

        Woodpecker, Ladder-backed             Picoides scalaris                           IN: res - sed - bre

        Woodpecker, Lewis’s                         Melanerpes lewis                           IN: res - sed - bre

71    Woodpecker, Pileated                        Dryocopus pileatus                       Extirpated

        Woodpecker, Red-bellied                   Melanerpes carolinus                    IN: res - sed - bre

        Woodpecker, Red-headed                  Melanerpes erythrocephalus         IN: mig - bre - reg


Wrens                                                       Troglodytidae

        Wren, Bewick’s                                  Thryomanes bewickii                    IN: mig - bre - reg

        Wren, Canyon                                    Catherpes mexicanus                    IN: res - sed - bre

        Wren, Carolina                                   Thryothorus ludovicianus             IN: mig - bre - irr

        Wren, House                                      Troglodytes aedon                        IN: mig - bre - reg

        Wren, Marsh                                      Cistothorus palustris                     IN: mig - bre - reg

        Wren, Rock                                        Salpinctes obsoletus                      IN: res - sed - bre

        Wren, Sedge                                       Cistothorus platensis                    IN: mig - err

        Wren, Winter                                      Troglodytes troglodytes                IN: res - sea




1      Anhingas — Two anhingas were collected, both in September but four years apart, in the same area of Aurora.  Written details archived at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science are vague about the collection sites, but photographs of the general area and taken in that era clearly show little available habitat.  Though both birds were originally identified as Anhinga anhinga, Allan R. Phillips examined them and corrected the identification of the first bird as Anhinga novaehollandiae, a species indigenous to Australia.  People have subsequently discounted this species from Colorado bird checklists as having escaped from captivity, but they accept the American Anhinga as a wild bird.  Circumstances are so peculiar – most likely, both birds were captives that either escaped, were released, or kept with cropped-wings until molt replaced the cut fethers and allowed them to fly free – that neither bird should be included on a recreation-based checklist, but both should be included on a catalog.


2      Murrelets — Not all sightings are reported, and not all sight records are accepted.  Behavior of the two species suggests that more of them probably migrate inland than are found and reported.  The birds are small and frequently associate with large aggregations of ducks, grebes, and coots where they can be easily obscured and difficult to locate at great distance.  Finally, many reservoirs suitable for murrelets are not accessible to birders or bird watchers.  Ancient Murrelet: 4 records, 2 specimens; Long-billed Murrelet: 2 sight records.


3      Condor, California — Three birds released into the wild in Arizona presumably followed the Colorado River upstream and settled onto Grand Mesa east of Grand Junction.  They walked inside the visitor center at Land’s End, walked back out, spent the night, departed the next day, and none have been reported in Colorado since.  Arrived 25 August 1998, departed 26 August 1998.


4      Vulture, Black — Some reports of this species have gone undocumented, and several documented reports have been rejected for various reasons that include everything from inadequate details to pure disbelief on the part of report reviewers.  A. Sidney Hyde, professor of zoology at Western State College in Gunnison, gave details of a sighting in Gunnison for 21 July 1975 (see: Birds of Colorado’s Gunnison Country by A. Sidney Hyde). 


5      Vulture, Turkey — Neither a turkey (pheasant family) nor a vulture (hawk family), the Turkey Vulture should be renamed as “Red-headed Condor.”  The Black Vulture should likewise be renamed as “Black-Condor.”  Good precedence exists for these name corrections.


6      Crane, Whooping — The species may have wandered into eastern Colorado in historical times, but it undoubtedly visited eastern Colorado in prehistorical times.  During the last glacial period, conditions in eastern Colorado were much more favorable for this species.  Quite likely, as the climate and vegetation changed with the melt-off of the glaciers, eastern Colorado became less and less suitable.  The cross-fostering experiments of the 1970s and 1980s brought the species to western Colorado for more than two decades, but the ultimate failure of the experiment doomed the small population to dwindle and expire.


7      Dipper, American — The familiar name “Ouzel” is a colloquial misnomer and should not be used.  The name “dipper” has been standardized for decades; and the continued use of “ouzel” represents a form of culturally institutionalized illiteracy.


8      Duck, Harlequin — Historical records indicate nesting in Colorado, a condition easily accepted given the ecological conditions of the state in the 1800s.  Extirpation following human settlement is equally likely.  Solitary birds occasionally appear on reservoirs around the state.  A good argument can be made that their propensity for open water in winter and their generally dull appearance in winter means solitary birds in great flocks of other waterfowl are regularly overlooked.


9      Duck, Mottled — W. N. W. Blaney collected a specimen 6 November 1907 near Loveland; and Ronald A. Ryder, professor of wildlife biology at Colorado State University, caught an adult male at Timnath Res. 18 September 1962.  Waterfowl management was Ryder’s area of special expertise during his professional years, and he trapped the Mottled Duck while engaged in a waterfowl banding project.  He based his identification on appropriate body measurements, plumage, and colors of feet, toes, and beak.  Hubbard examined a variety of such records and scrutinized the specimens accompanying those records and determined that the Mottled Ducks from areas beyond the species’ normal range, such as Colorado, represented hybrids.  In a personal discussion, Ryder indicated to me that the morphological characters of the live bird left no doubt it was a Mottled Duck rather than a hybrid and that some traits such as flesh colors would not be interpretable on museum specimens.  A DNA test on the Blaney and Ryder specimens now in the Denver Museum of Nature and Science would very likely resolve the identity issue.


10    Duck, Tufted — Specimens of this species are periodically kept in the North Shore exhibit of the Denver Zoo.  However, the lone bird sighted in the wild could not be accounted for by an absence of a bird from the zoo.


11    Duck, Wood — Habitat suitable for this species did not occur reliably nor extensively in Colorado until after landscape changes invoked by settlement: impoundment of reservoirs and planting of trees.  Responding to such changes, the bird pioneered its way into the state and was encouraged by large-scale nestbox programs in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s.


12    Eider, Common — Wells Woodbridge Cooke published an annotated listing of the known birds of Colorado in 1897 and amended it with an appendix in 1898.  In that appendix he cited a specimen of this species killed near Loveland before 1892.  W. G. Smith shot the bird, but William Osburn told Cooke of the bird; Cooke did not query Smith and did not see the specimen, which is not known to still exist.  A third-hand anecdotal account with no further information, documentation, or specimen is always cause for prudent skepticism.  In 1932 William Harry Bergtold and three birding companions found a lone bird of this species at Marston Reservoir.  Bergtold’s full account provides convincing remarks when evaluated in context of his full body of ornithological work.


13    Garganey


14    Teal, Baikal — Sylvia Brockner found this bird in Evergreen.  Many people saw the bird and confirmed its identity – the species is distinctive enough that identification is not difficult – but the bird has been discounted from the state checklist because of uncertainty about the bird’s origin.  If the bird was wild and free-flying so that it arrived here on its own, it would be accepted; but if the bird escaped from captivity, then the status of the bird occurring in Colorado would be rejected.  Regardless of origin and means of arrival, the bird was a Baikal Teal and the bird remained here in the wild for several weeks.  It belongs on a catalog.

15    Whistling-Duck, Black-bellied


16    Whistling-Duck, Fulvous


17    Caracara, Crested — Bailey and Niedrach explained circumstances of the first occurrence of the species in Colorado.  A young bird was captured near Glenwood Springs in 1948, sent to the Denver Museum of Natural History in 1950 and from there given to the Denver Zoo where it died in 1955.  The carcass was returned to the Museum where it was prepared as a display specimen.  A sighting of the species remains the


18    Flycatcher, Dusky-capped — P.M. Thorne collected a specimen of this species at Fort Lyon along the Arkansas River near Las Animas in 1883.  The specimen was given to William Brewster, whose collection was transferred to the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University and where the specimen remains.  A single bird found in the state in more than a century and a half of specimen collecting and species documentation indicates a bird that belongs on a catalog but not a checklist.


19    Goose, Bar-headed — This Asiatic species became very popular as an aviculture bird during the 1970s and 1980s, so much so that it was included in several editions of National Geographic Society’s Field Guide to the Birds of North America.  Free-flying birds were seen in various parts of Colorado during the 1980s, and in 1985 a pair nested, including eggs, in a field west of Colorado State University’s Veterinary Teaching Hospital, just north of Drake Road and west of College Avenue and the railroad tracks in Fort Collins.


20    Goose, Cackling


21    Goose, Chinese


22    Grouse, Dusky


23    Grouse, Ruffed


24    Gull, Ivory — A live bird was reported seen on 30 December 1925 then found dead 2 January 1926.  It remains one of two inland records this far west and south – the other is in extreme northeastern Montana.  Such circumstances argue for including the bird on a catalog but not a checklist.


25    Gull, Western — Wells Woodbridge Cooke reported in his 1897 compilation of Colorado birds a specimen collected 30 September 1889 by William Osburn.  This bird presents several points of interest both pro and con.  Specifically, the specimen is not known to still exist, which argues against acceptance.  However, the species is known to wander widely with many inland records at such places as Idaho, Illinois, and New Mexico, among others.  Further, Lake Loveland in Loveland is known to attract a great diversity of gulls.  The species does not belong on a checklist, but including it on a catalog is probably advisable in the event additional documentation is someday discovered.


26    Hawk, Red-backed

27    Swallow-tailed Kite


28    Hummingbird, Blue-throated


29    Hummingbird, Broad-billed


30    Hummingbird, Costa’s


31    Hummingbird, Ruby-throated


32    Hummingbird, White-eared


33    Violet-ear, Green


31    Ibis, Glossy


32    Spoonbill, Roseate


33    Loon, Arctic


34    Nighthawk, Lesser


35    Sparrow, House


36    Owl, Barred


37    Budgerigar


38    Parakeet, Carolina


39    Parakeet, Monk


40    Chukar


41    Guineafowl, Helmeted


42    Junglefowl, Red


43    Partridge, Gray


44    Peafowl, Common


45    Pheasant, Ring-necked


46    Collared-Dove, Eurasian


47    Dove, Inca


48    Ground-Dove, Ground


49    Pigeon, Rock


50    Pipit, Sprague’s


51    Golden-Plover, American


52    Quail, California Quail


53    Quail, Gambel’s


54    Quail, Mountain


55    Quail, Scaled


56    Rail, Yellow


57    Curlew, Eskimo


58    Sandpiper, Curlew


59    Sandpiper, Sharp-tailed


60    Skimmer, Black


61    Stork, Wood — Bailey and Niedrach itemized 9 specimens taken in Colorado and 1 sighting  of 12 birds near Littleton.  Andrews and Righter accept only the 3 specimens housed at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science and recommend discounting the other records.  The occurrence of Wood Stork in Colorado cannot be productively explained without extensive discourse on postglacial biogeography; Wood Stork natural history and population declines; cultural history of Colorado in presettlement, settlement, and postsettlement periods; and settlement of southern and southwestern states during the 1800s and 1900s.


62    Swan, Mute


63    Swift, Chimney


64    Tern, Royal


65    Thrasher, Bendire’s


66    Thrasher, Long-billed

67    Nothura, Darwin’s — This species, indigenous to Argentina, was incorporated into the statewide gamebird management plan in the 1960s when the overseeing wildlife agency was called the “Colorado Department of Game, Fish and Parks” and the bird was called “Pale-spotted Tinamou.”  The Department maintained a “Foreign Game Introduction Program” through which 20 birds were acquired in 1966 and 18 more in 1967.  From this core population the species was propagated in the gamebird farm northeast of Fort Collins.  Young birds were released – conversations with people aware of or involved in the program indicate numbers as low as a few hundred to as high as 2,200 tinamous released – onto Comanche National Grassland in Baca County in 1969, 1970, and 1971; none survived and the introduction program was terminated.  However, the species was included on the Comanche bird checklist for many years.  In 2006 I discussed the bird and its checklist status with the wildlife biologist assigned to Comanche.  He indicated that because he could find no records of any “Pale-spotted Tinamous” in the files at either Comanche National Grassland or San Isabel National Forest offices he interpreted the inclusion of the species on the Comanche bird checklist as a joke and consequently deleted it.  The state records of the program to introduce this species were stored at the old gamebird farm where the birds were raised, but it suffered a severe fire in which many records were lost.  Surviving records were moved to the main Fort Collins office on Prospect Road and stored in a garage where they were irreparably damaged in a 1997 flood.  For several academic reasons, this species belongs on a state catalog, but it has no place on a checklist. 


68    Turkey, Wild


69    Parula, Tropical — Found in Grand View Cemetery in Fort Collins.


70    Warbler, Red-faced


71    Waterthrush, Northern — M. Beth Dillon discovered the first Waterthrushes exhibiting nesting behavior in Colorado in 1994; she found an adult feeding a fledgling the following summer.  This fairly common spring migrant generally breeds no closer than the Yellowstone area. 


72    Woodpecker, Pileated — Evidence derived through paleoecology and biogeography argues persuasively that this species occurred indigenously in Colorado, was here at the time of settlement, and was near extirpation by the Twentieth Century.  Documentation from Fred Rodell concerning the birds he saw in the Maroon Bells in the late 1950s is convincing when evaluated in concert with other material.  The species belongs on a catalog but not a checklist.




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